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Copper is recovered from its sulfidic ores by a process wherein the ore is mixed and fused with at least a stoichiometric amount of a sulfide of sodium or potassium which may be prepared in situ by reacting sulfur with potassium or sodium hydroxide.read more
1.1.2 Extraction of Nickel and Cobalt from Sulphide Ores Sulphide ores were mostly created by i the intrusion of molten magma from the mantle into the crust of the earth and ii the formation of localized metal-rich sulphide ore bodies by sequential solidification and/or hydrothermal leaching and precipitation.read more
: A -containing that is typically a mixture carbonate, sulfate, phosphate, and oxide minerals and secondary minerals. Includes chalcocite and chalcopyrite. Typically processed using pyrometallurgy, although low-grade may sometimes use steps from the hydrometallurgy process.read more
· There are two main types of interest: oxide and . Both types can be economically mined, but they are processed in different ways.read more
FROM is mostly copper pyrites, by means of following two processes: i-Smelting process ii-Hydrometallurgical process SMELTING PROCESS Modern metallurgy is based on smelting process. Following steps are involved: i. CONCENTRATION OF finely powdered ore is concentrated by …read more
can be by: Underground: sinking a vertical shaft into Earth to an appropriate depth and driving horizontal tunnels into Open pit: 90% of is mined by this method. near surface can be quarried after removal of surface layers. is treated with dilute acid.read more
from Large amount are obtained from pyrite CuFeS2 by smelting. containing 4% or more are treated by smelting process.read more
than carbon, it can be from compounds by heating with carbon. is an example of this. mostly occurs as , which are heated in air to convert them to II ...read more
of Metals. .. is sometimes found as native metal.. include II oxide and II . II oxide can be reduced by reaction with carbon.. Some may contain only small amounts . These are called low grade and have less than 1% but they are still used because is so valuable.read more
and refining. The of nickel from follows much the same route as , and indeed, in a number of cases, similar processes and equipment are used. The major differences in equipment are the use of higher-temperature refractories and the increased cooling required to accommodate the higher operating temperatures in nickel production.read more
can be from usually higher grade by direct smelting. The earliest evidence smelting occurs in Serbian artefacts dating from around 5000 BC. can be from oxide using electrolysis electrowinning for low grade , or by the carbon reduction method of smelting for higher ...read more
and refining. The from is normally carried out in three major steps. The first step, mineral processing, is to liberate the minerals and remove waste constituents—such as alumina, limestone, pyrite, and silica—so that the minerals and other nonferrous minerals of value are concentrated into a product containing between 20 and 30 percent .read more
Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtain copper from its ores. The conversion of copper consists of a series of physical and electrochemical processes. Methods have evolved and vary with country depending on the ore source, local environmental regulations, and other factors. As in all mining operations, the ore must usually be beneficiated concentrated. The processing techniques depend on the nature of the ore. If the ore is primarily sulfide copper minerals such as chalcopyrite, th…read more
Gold refers to the processes required to gold from .This may require a combination of comminution, mineral processing, hydrometallurgical, and pyrometallurgical processes to be performed on the .. Gold mining from alluvium was once achieved by techniques associated with placer mining such as simple gold panning and sluicing, resulting in direct recovery of ...read more
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